Verbs in their bare-stem form

Symbols used:

UNEXP Unexpected occurrence of a tensed V.
Hyp Hypothetic clause
N+V Noun plus verb construction. Guadeloupean does not use prepositions to indicate the relation between a N and a qualifying V.
V+V Monoclausal constructions containing two verbs whose meanings are complementary.
Mod Modal verbs are inherently tensed and never preceded by TMA markers.
Mod+V A verb selected by a modal V never has TMA morphology.
A+V The verbal complement of an adjective is not introduced by any overt preposition. Thus, French APs like content de parler (“happy to talk”) become kontan palé in Guadeloupean.
P+V When a V is the complement of a P, it is does not have any overt verbal morphology.
Restr+V Restructring Vs take infinitival phrasal complements as their internal argument.
Imper Imperatives occur in their base-stem form.
SP Simple past (allegedly never expressed by any overt TMA marker with eventive Vs).
Vstate Never preceded by any overt TMA marker to indicate present meaning.

All examples from:  Tiprens-la (CaraïbEditions) (TP) and Poullet & Telchid (2010) (P&T).

When examples contain more than one verb-stem form, I classify them on the basis of the first occurrence.


Guadeloupean – Bare-stem Verbs

 

Simple Past

Description Example From
SP Restr+V Tiprens-la -y òbsèvé

Little.prince-DEF make.him observe

“The Little prince pointed out”

TP
SP Restr+V Sa -mwen graté tèt an-mwen onlo asi tribilasyon a lajeng

This make-me scratch head of-me a.lot on problem of jungle

“This made me think a lot about the problems of the jungle”

TP

 

SP V+V Restr+V É an apwann avyon volé

And I learn make plane flight

“And I learnt how to make planes flight”

TP
SP Restr+V An avyon volé tibwen toupatou asi latè

I make plane flight a.bit everywhere on earth

“I made planes flight quite everywhere on Earth”

TP
SP Restr+V An Tiprens-la obsèvé sé baobab-la a pa dé tipyébwa

I make Little.prince-DEF observe PLUR baobab-DEF it NED some little.tree

“I made the Little Prince notice that the baobabs, they’re not little trees”

TP
SP Restr+V Lidé a tout on krèy éléfan la Tiprens-la ri

Idea of all a herd elephant DEF make Little.prince laugh

“The idea of a whole herd of elephants made the Little Prince laugh”

TP
SP Lè nou rivé détwa wasou channda

When we arrive some bird leave

“When we arrived, some birds left”

P&T
SP Lè yo rivé bò rivyè-la, pa té ni ponmoun

When they arrive riverside-DEF, NEG ANT have anyone

“When they got to the riverside, no one was around”

P&T
SP La otila an sòti

There form.where I come

“(The place) where I came from…”

TP
SP I rivé i té on grenn

It arrive it ANT a seed

“It arrived a seed [=he was a seed when he arrived]”

TP
SP I fòsé si tousé a-y

He force on cough of-it

“It exagerated its coughs”

TP
SP Tiprens-la […] mété-y adan on ayen tan ka douté dè-y

Little.prince-DEF put-he inside a nothing time PROGR doubt(V) of-it

“The Little prince started to doubt it for a while”

TP
SP On jou i di-mwen an zorèy

One day he say-me in ear

“One day he wispered in my ear”

TP
SP V+V SP UNEXP

gerund

Mé vitman tipyébwa-la arété tijé, é mété-y ka préparé on flè

But soon little.plant-DEF stop grow, and put-it PROGR prepare a flower

“But very soon the little plant stopped growing, and started to prepare a flower”

TP
SP

 

UNEXP

(gerund)

I rété ka gadé-mwen èstébékwè

He stay PROGR look-me astonished

“He went on looking at me astonished”

TP
SP A + V N + V Mé an rété bon békwè-la vwè figi a jenn jij an-mwen kléré èvè lakontantman i té yé

But I stay well surprised-DEF see figure of young judge of-me light.up with happiness he ANT COPint

“But I stook there astonished to see my young judge’s face start shining with  happiness”

TP
SP P+V I pa janmé ayen apa kalkilasyon

He NEG never do nothing aside do calculations

“He never did anything but calculations”

TP
SP V+V An mété-mwen annaks pou té éséyé rivé a bout a on réparasyon fòsan

I put-me in.condition for ANT try arrive at end of a fixing-up exhausting

“I put myself in the best conditions to try to make an end of an exhausting fixing-up”

TP
SP

 

Imper I réponn-mwen : “Tigason ay ponn !”

He answer-me : “Boy, go lay (an egg) !

“He told me : “Boy, go get lost!””

P&T
SP

 

N+V I pwan tan gadé

He took time watch

“He took the time to watch [the drawing]”

TP
SP

 

P+V An vin pou on déklarasyon

I come to do a declaration

“I came to declare [what happened to me]”

P&T
SP

 

P+V An vin pou on déklarasyon

I come to do a declaration

“I came to declare [what happened to me]”

P&T
SP

 

P+V Sa pwan-mwen onlo tan pou konpwan ola i té sòti

This take-me a.lot time for understand where he ANT come

“It took me a lot of time to understand where he came from”

TP
SP

 

P+V V+V Sé pli gran la pwofité  ou pa la pou yo ay drivé

PLUR more big DEF take.advantage.of you NEG there for they go hang.around

“The bigger ones have taken advantage of your absence to hang around”

P&T
SP SP Mod+V Mwen éséyé mé an pa rivé -y

I try but I NEG arrive do-it

“I tried but I didn’t manage to do it”

TP
SP Mod+V Plibon pòtré an rivé dè-y

Best portrait I arrive do of-he

“The best portait of him I managed to do”

TP
SP SP P+V On flè asifi i gadè-y pou i santi kyè a-y kontan

A flower Øthat be.sufficient he look-it for he feel heart of-he happy

“A flower he just needed to see to feel happy”

TP
SP

 

V+V An vin atann-yo

I come wait-them

“I came to wait for them”

P&T
SP V+V Dèwò-la, prèmyè ti limyè a solèy-la konmansé kléré

Outside-DEF, first little light of sun-DEF start shine

“Outside, the first sunbeams started to shine”

P&T
SP V+V É on jou i konséyé-mwen pwan tout ti tan an-mwen pou réyision bèl désen

An one day he suggest-me take all little time of-me for do nice drawing

“And one day he suggested I should take all my own sweet time to realise a nice drawing”

TP
SP V+V Adan onsèl kou i mété pléré-gwodlo atè

In only.one time he put cry-tear to.the.ground

“And all of a sudden, he started crying”

TP
SP V+V Adan on ayen tan mwen apwann konnèt flè-lasa plibyen

In a nothing time I learnt know flower-DEF better

“And in a very little time I got to know that flower better”

TP
SP V+V Dèwò-la, prèmyè ti limyè a solèy-la konmansé kléré

Outside-DEF, first little light of sun-DEF start shine

“Outside, the first sunbeams started to shine”

P&T
SP V+V Kifè an désidé-mwen chèché-sav plis asi tousa

So I decide-me try-know more on all.this

“So I decided to try to learn more about all this”

TP
SP Restr+V On diktatè tirk fòsé pèp a-y pòté lenj éwopéyen

A dictator turk force people of-he wear clothes european

“A Turk dictator had his people wear [only] European clothes”

TP
SP V+V Astrononm-la viré montray a-y an 1920 (tornò a fare)

Astronomer-DEF come.back do exposition of-he in 1920

“The astronomer came back to do his exposition [again] in 1920”

TP
SP V+V Apré nou fin lavé-kò an-nou lématen

After we finish wash-body of.us morning

“After we finish washing ourselves in the morning”

TP
SP V+V I kouri gadé

She run look

“She ran to see what was happening”

P&T
SP

 

P+V(Mod) Mod+V Lè an fin pa rivé di on pawòl, an di-y konsa

When I finish for say a word, I say-he like.this

“When I finally managed to say a word, I told him so”

TP
SP V+V Mé an moman-lasa an vin sonjé an té lontan plis apwann jéografi […]

But at moment-DEM I come realize I ANT way more learn geography

“But at that moment I realised I had learnt way more geography [than how to draw]”

TP
SP V+V Sé konsa, twazyèm jou-la, an vin touvé-mwen okouran a penn é tribilasyon a sé baobab-la

COPpres like.this, third day-DEF, I come find-me abreast of pain and suffering of PLUR baobab-DEF

“And it’s like this that, the third day, I found myself abreast of the problems of the baobabs”

TP
SP V+V An vin atann-yo

I come wait-them

“I came to wait for them”

P&T
SP V+V E sé konsa an vin konnèt Tiprens-la

And COPpres like.this I come know Little.prince-DEF

“And that’s how I got to know the Little Prince”

TP
SP V+V Sé konsa an vin apwann on dézièm biten fondal toubòlman

COPpres like.this I come learn a second thing fundamental extremely

“That’s how I got to learn a second, fundamental thing”

TP
SP V+V Tiprens, sé konsa an vin konpwann, piti a piti, ti lavi chimérik a-w-la

Little.prince, COPpres like.this I come understand, little to little, little life sad of-you-DEF

“Little Prince, that’s how I got to understand, little by little, your saddish life”

TP
SP V+V An vin apwann dènyé tibiten-lasa

I come learn last little.thing-DEF

“I got to learn this last, little thing”

TP
SP Vstate P+V Kifè an viv tousèl tousèl an-mwen, san ni ponmoun pou palé osèryé

So I live alone alone of-me, without have nobody for talk seriously

“So that I lived all on my own, without anyone to talk to seriously”

TP

 


Hypothetic clauses

Description Example From
Hyp

 

N+V Si an pwan tan rakonté-zòt sé tibiten-lasa […]

If I take time tell-you PLUR little.thing-DEM

“If I take the time to tell you these details […]”

TP
Hyp

 

Mod

(pè)

Mod

(rivé)

 

Mod+V Anka si on jou yo vwayajé, sa rivé sèvi-yo

IN.case if one day they travel, this can arrive be.useful-they

“In case they would travel one day, this might turn out to be useful to them”

TP

 


Stative Verbs

Description Example From
Vstate Mé ou sav byen an malad!

But you know well I sick

“But you perfectly know that I’m sick!”

P&T
Vstate Vstate Ou sav an pa sitèlman enmè lanmè

You know I NEG so.much love sea

“You know I’m not much of a sea person”

P&T
Vstate Pa ni tig asi planèt an-mwen

“There are no tigers on my planet”

TP
Vstate An ray sé kourandè-la toubòlman

I fear PLUR draft-DEF extremely

“I am very scared of drafts”

TP
Vstate An bizwen on mouton

I need a mutton

“I need a mutton”

TP
Vstate P+V Pa ni hak pou

NEG have nothing for do

“There is nothing to do”

P&T
Vstate V+V I pa enmé dansé, i pa enmé ponmlé […] i pa enmé li, i pa enmé mennaj

She NEG love dance, she NEG love walk […] she NEG love read, she NEG love do housekeeping

“She doesn’t love dancing, she doesn’t love going for walks, she doesn’t love reading, she doesn’t love doing the housekeeping”

P&T
Vstate

 

V+V V+V An pa gyè enmé -mwen pasé pou on filozòf ka ba-moun lison

I NEG at.all love make-me pass for a philosopher HAB give-person lesson

“I don’t want people to think I’m one of those philosophers who indoctrinates people”

TP
Vstate Vstate+V Mé pouki ou vlé sé mouton a-w-la manjé sé tibaobab-la ?”

But why you want PLUR mutton of-you-DEF eat PLUR little.baobab-DEF

“But why do you want your muttons to eat the little baobabs [=but why do you think that the muttons would…]?”

TP

 


Noun + Verb

Description Example From
N+V Mod+V On bon rézon fo-zòt pwan an konsidérasyon

A good reason must-you(PL) take in consideration

“A good reason you must take into consideration”

TP
N+V(Mod) Mod+V […] rivé ou rivé rikonnèt-yo parapòt a sé pyéwòz-la

Arrive(N) you arrive(V) distinguish-they from of PLUR rose-DEF

Once you get to distinguish them from the plants of roses

TP

Adjective + Verb

Description Example From
A+V Alòs, granmoun-la té ka byen kontan konté avè on nomn […]

Consequently, adult-DEF ANT PROGR well happy talk with a man

“Consequently, the adults were delighted of being able to speak to [such] a man”

TP
A+V É sa pa séryé chèché-sav poukisa flè ka ba kò a-yo tann mal pou fè pikan i pa ka janmé sèvi ahak ?

And this NEG serious try-know why flower HAB give body of-they such.big trouble for make thorn that NEG HAV never be.of.service nothing

“And isn’t it serious to try to understand why the flowers go to such a fair amount of trouble to grow some thorns that aren’t of any service?”

TP
A+V Mé flè-la pa té ka las ranjé kò a-y pou i té pé sa parèt bèl

But flower-DEF NEG ANT PROGR tired prepare body of-it for it ANT can that look nice

“But the flower wans’t tired of taking care of itself in order to have a chance of looking good”

TP
A+V(Mod)

 

Mod+V Kifè sa pa fasil manm rivé vwè-yo adan on télèskòp

So this NEG easy even arrive see-they inside a spyglass

“For which reason it isn’t easy to even get to see them with a spyglass”

TP
A+V V+V An té présé konmansé démonté motè an-mwen

I ANT in.a.hurry start disassemble engine of-me

“I was in a hurry to start disassembling my engine”

TP
A+V An té kapab rikonnèt

I ANT able distinguish

“I could recognize”

TP

 


Verb + Verb

Description Example From
V+V […] nou té kay konmisyon, tousa avan nou té ay lékòl

We ANT HAB.go do shopping, all.this before we ANT go school

“We would do the shopping, and this before we went to school”

P&T
V+V Ola sé tifi-la té kay bengné ?

Where PLUR girl-DEF ANT PROGR.go swim?

“Where were the girls going to swim?”

P&T
V+V Nou kay okipé dè nòstròm

We PROGR.go occupy of our.man

“We’re going to deal with that [=with that man]”

P&T
V+V An kay wouvè lenj adan savann

I PROGR.go hang linen in garden

“I’m going to hang the linen in the garden”

P&T
V+V Nou pa kay bangné an rivyé

We NEG PROGR.go bath(V) in river

“We’re not going to swim in the river”

P&T
V+V Nou té kay manjè lapen

We ANT HAB.go make eat(N) rabbit

“We would prepare the rabbit’s food”

P&T
V+V I kay travay(V)

He PROGR.go work

“He is going to work”

P&T
V+V Nou pa kay bangné an rivyé

We NEG PROGR.go bath(V) in river

“We’re not going to swim in the river”

P&T
V+V Sé tifi-la té kay bengné an rivyé-la

PLUR girl-DEF PROGR.go swim in river-DEF

“The girls were going to swim in the river”

P&T
V+V An kay wouvè lenj adan savann

I PROGR.go hang linen in garden

“I’m going to hang the linen in the garden”

P&T
V+V Nou kay okipé dè nòstròm

We PROGR.go occupy of our.man

“We’re going to deal with that [=with that man]”

P&T
V+V An té kay chèché-y mé…

I ANT PROGR.go look.for-him but

“I was going to look for it, but…”

TP
V+V I té ay on gran montray

He ANT go make a big exposition

“He had gone doing a big exposition”

TP
V+V Kanmarad an-mwen ay chimen a-y épi mouton a-y

Friend of-me fo make track of-he with mutton of-he

“My friend made his way with his mutton”

TP
V+V(Mod) Mod+V Ou pa kay janmé rivé a bout a-y aprésa

You NEG PROGR.go never can arrive at end of-it after.this

“You will never be able to get to the end of that after this”

TP
V+V

 

V+V An kay éséyé […] dé pòtré ka sanm-li piplis

I PROGR.go try make two portrait PROGR resemble-he more

“I will try to do two more faithful portraits of him”

TP
V+V Yo ka pisimyé ay bòdlanmè lè tan-la two fwè

They HAB prefer go seaside when weather-DEF too cold

“The prefer going to the seaside when it’s a bit too cold”

P&T
V+V É an pa té janmé apwann désiné ahak dòt ki boa fèmé é boa ouvè

And I NEG ANT never learn draw nothing other than boa closed and boa open

“And I had never learnt how to draw anything but closed boas and opened ones”

TP
V+V Ou pa ka nòz pa kouté

You NEG HAB dare NEG listen

“You don’t dare listening”

TP
V+V An té ké enmé konmansé istwa-lasa menmjan ki on kont a prens é prensès

I ANT IRR love start story-DEM same as a fable of prince and princess

“I would (have) love(d) to start this story as a fairy tale”

TP
V+V An té ké enmé di […]

I ANT IRR love say

“I would love to say”

TP
V+V É i té bizwen ni on zanmi.

And he ANT need have a friend

“And he needed (to have) a friend”

TP
V+V An désidé pa rété bouch fèmé ankò

I decide NEG stay mouth shut still

“And I decided non to keep my mouth shut any longer”

TP
V+V On jou, an vwè solèy desann an lanmè karant-twa fwa !

One day, I see sun go.down in sea 44 time

“One day, I saw the sun set into the sea 44 times”

TP
V+V An té okipé bon okipé la an moman-lasa ka éséyé débridé on boulon two séré adan motè an-mwen

I ANT busy good busy DEF at moment-DEM PROGR try release a bolt too fasten inside engine of-me

“At that moment, I was very busy trying to release a bolt that was too fasten in my engine”

TP
V + V Yo ka pisimyé ay bòdlanmè lè tan-la two fwè

They HAB prefer go seaside when weather-DEF too cold

“The prefer going to the seaside when it’s a bit too cold”

P&T

 


Preposition + Verb

Description Example From
P+V Sa ka sèvi toubòlman, pou anka ou pèd-chimen on jou lannuit

This PROGR be.useful extremely, for in.case you lose-track a day night

“This is very useful, in case you lose track one day at night”

TP
P+V San mandé ponmoun ka yo ka vann

Without ask anyone what they HAB think

“Without asking anyone what they think”

P&T
P+V Ou ka monté si mwen san di bonjou!

You HAB come across me without say hi

“You come across me without saying hi!”

P&T
P+V Yo ka monté si granmoun san yo di ni bonjou, ni mèsi, ni ovwa, ni ahak

They HAB bump into adult without they say nor good.morning, nor thank.you, nor goodbye, nor nothing

“They bump into adults without saying hello, thank you, goodbye, anything”

P&T
P+V Ou ka monté si mwen san di bonjou!

You HAB come across me without say hi

“You come across me without saying hi!”

P&T
P+V Pou mèt Tiprens-la antò a-y

For put Little.prince-DEF high of-it

“To put the Little Prince up to it [=the rose]”

TP
P+V Pou ba Tiprens-la rimò

For give Little.prince-DEF regret

“To make the Little prince feel guilty”

TP
P+V Sé si mwa-la manjé-la ka pwan pou désann an fal a-yo la

PLUR six month-DEF food-DEF HAB take for go.down in guts of-they DEF2

“The six months the food takes to get digested”

TP
P+V An ké ba-w on kòd osi pou maré-y lajouné

I ANT give-he a rope also for fasten-it day

“I also gave him a rope so that he could fasten it during the day”

TP
P+V Sa pa té pou soupwann-mwen onlo

This NEG ANT for surprise-me a.lot

“This wasn’t very surprising for me”

TP
P+V pou an pa obliyé-y

COPpres for I NEG forget-it

“It’s [meant] for me not to forget [about] it”

TP
P+V Blipman i mandé-mwen, san avèti […]

Suddenly he ask-me, without advise

“Suddenly he asked me, without advising […]”

TP
P+V Poukisa flè ka ba kò a-yo tann mal pou pikan […]?

Why flower HAB give body of-they this.much bad for do thorn

“Why do the flowers go to such a fair amount of trouble to grow some thorns?”

TP
P+V V+V Epi penga mandé-yo rann-vou pon sèvis

And useless ask-them do-you any service

“And it’s useless to ask them to do you a service”

P&T
P+V

 

V+V Epi penga mandé-yo rann-vou pon sèvis

And useless ask-them do-you any service

“And it’s useless to ask them to do you a service”

P&T

 


Modals

Description Example From
Mod Mod+V Flè-la ou enmé la pa bizwen ayen…

Flower-DEF you love DEF2 NEG need fear  nothing

“The flower you love doesn’t need to fear anything…”

TP
Mod Mod+V Fo pa blanmé-yo

Must NEG blame-they

“One shouldn’t blame them”

TP
Mod Mod+V Fo pa sé timoun-la montré-yo two rèd (=duri) avè sé granmoun-la

Must NEG PLUR child-DEF reveal-they too harsh with PLUR adult-DEF

“The children mustn’t be too harsh with the adults”

TP
Mod+V Mé la, ké fo-zòt èskizé-mwen

But here, IRR must-you escuse-me

“But now, you’ll have tu excuse me”

TP
Mod Mod+V Mé si sé on mové plant, fo raché plant-la

But if COPpres a bad plant, must pull.out plant-DEF

“But if the plant is weed, you must pull it out”

TP
Mod Mod+V Fo lavé planèt-la byen-byen pwòp

Must wash planet-DEF well-well clean

“One must keep the planet brilliant”

TP
Mod P+V P+V E an tan-lasa, ou té fè tousa ou té ni pou san jen di mouk

And in time-DEM, must you ANT do everything you ANT have to do without nothing say fly(N)

“And at that time, you had to do everything you were supposed to without saying a word”

P&T
Mod

 

 

Mod+V(Mod) Mod+V P+V Té ké […] fo on moun ay an Frans adan on ayen tan pou i sizé-gadé solèy-la ka desann an lanmè

ANT IRR must a person can go in France in a nothing time for she admire sun PROGR go.down sea

“It should be possible for people to go to France in a very little time so that they could admire the sun setting in the sea”

TP
Mod P+V P+V E an tan-lasa, ou té fè tousa ou té ni pou san jen di mouk

And in time-DEM, must you ANT do everything you ANT have to do without nothing say fly(N)

“And at that time, you had to do everything you were supposed to without saying a word”

P&T
Mod

 

SP Jéografi, fo di, rédé-mwen onlo

Geography, must say, help-me a.lot

“Geography helped me a lot, I must admit it”

TP
Mod Mod+V P+V P+V

(Mod)

Mod+V Fo ou ranjé-w kon ou vlé pou ou sa raché près touléjou kon jou fèt sé baobab-la […]

Must you organise-you as you want for you can this pull.out almost everyday as day festive PLUR baobab-DEF

“You must get prepared as you wish so that you can pull out the baobabs everyday, as on holiday!”

TP
Mod+V On Tiprens i té bizwen yo ba-y konfòwtasyon !

A Little.prince that ANT need you give-he comfort(N)

“A Little Prince who needed to be comforted”

TP
Mod Mod+V É si an ba-zòt konnèt liméwo a-y […]

And if I give-you know number of-it

“And if I allow you to know its number […]”

TP
Mod Mod+V fo atann

But must wait

“But one must wait”

TP
Mod Mod+V Yo vin, sé tig-la, avè grif a-yo !

They can come, PLUR tiger-DEF, with claws of-they

“They can come, the tigers, with their claws!”

TP
Mod Mod+V A pa toutmoun i di yo té ni on zanmi

EXPL NEG everybody that can say they ANT have a friend

“Not everyone can affirm they have a friend”

TP
Mod Mod+V V+V Ou konmansé dékòlè

You can start calm-down

“You can calm down, now”

P&T
Mod Mod+V V+V P+V Si sé on plan […] a wòz, ou lésé-y tijé kon i vlé

If COPpres a plant […] of rose, you can let-it grow as it wish

“If it’s a plant of roses, you can let it grow as it pleases”

TP
Mod+V I pa té janbé rivyè-la, i té malad

He NEG ANT can jump river-DEF, he ANT sick

“He couldn’t jump over the river, he was sick”

P&T
Mod Mod+V Sa an vin dèmen

This can I come tomorrow

“It is possible that I come tomorrow”

P&T
Mod+V I pa té janbé rivyè-la, i té malad

He NEG ANT can jump river-DEF, he ANT sick

“He couldn’t jump over the river, he was sick”

P&T
Mod Mod+V Timoun alè di yo malélivé !

Child today can say they bad-mannered

“Today’s children can call themselves bad-mannered!”

P&T
Mod+V I pa té di ayen anplis

He NEG ANT can say notheng also

“He even couldn’t say anithing”

TP
Mod+V Sa té sété on dènyé modèl baobab

This ANT can COPpast a last model baobab

“This might have been a new type of baobab”

TP
Mod Mod+V Ou di ou malélivé

You can say you bad-mannered

“(You can say) you’re bad-mannered”

P&T
Mod Mod+V Timoun alè di yo malélivé !

Child today can say they bad-mannered

“Today’s children can call themselves bad-mannered!”

P&T
Mod Mod+V V+V Ou komansé dékòlè

You can start calm

“You can calm down now”

P&T
Mod+V V+V É sa té ké rivé an vin kon sé granmoun-la ka vwè yenki sé chif-la

And this ANT IRR can arrive I come like PLUR adult-DEF HAB see only PLUR numbers-DEF

“And it might happen to me to become like the adults, who always have but numbers in their mind”

TP
Mod Mod+V P+V Ou di yo rèd pou menné

You can say they difficult for bring

“(You can say) they are difficult to upbring!”

P&T
Mod Mod+V An rivé désiné prèmyé désen an-mwen

I arrive draw first drawing of-me

“I managed to make my first drawing”

TP
Mod+V Pou sé granmoun-la té pé rivé konpwann

For PLUR adult-DEF ANT can arrive understand

“For adults to manage to understand”

TP
Mod+V Yo pa ka rivé imajiné kaz-lasa

They NEG HAN arrive imagine house-DEM

“They really can’t imagine this house”

TP
Mod+V Mé mwen […] an pa ka rivé vwè on mouton andidan on kès

Mut me, I NEG HAB arrive see a mutton inside a box

“But I […], I can’t see a mutton [that’s] inside a box”

TP
Mod Mod+V I pa janmé rivé enmé ponmoun

He NEG never arrive love someone

“He could never love anyone”

TP
Mod Mod+V P+P Yo viv adoumanman, san yo fòsé pou hak

They want live quietly, without they make.efforts for nothing

“They want to live quietly, without making any sort of efforts”

P&T
Mod Mod+V V+V Rènéliz é Fanélya vlé ay bengné

Rènéliz and Fanélya want go bath(V)

“Rènéliz and Fanélya want to go swimming”

P&T
Mod Mod+V V+V Rènéliz é Fanélya vlé ay bengné

Rènéliz and Fanélya want go bath(V)

“Rènéliz and Fanélya want to go swimming”

P&T
Mod V+V(Mod) Mod+V An vlé on mouton i kay viv lontan

I want a mutton that PROGR.go can live long

“I want a mutton which can live long”

TP
Mod Mod+V Yo toujou bizwen ou kléré-yo

They always need you clarify-they

“They always need you to explain them everything”

TP
Mod Mod+V Aprésa, yo pa fouti déplasé

After.this, they NEG manage move

“After, they can’t move”

TP
Mod Mod+V I kriyé-y :“astéwoyid 325-la”

He can call-it asteroid 325-DEF

“He can call it Asteroid 325

TP
Mod Mod+V V+V Chaklè ou ay chèché Rènéliz

Every.time you can go look.for Renelise

“Every time you can go look for Renelise”

P&T
Mod Mod+V Lè you ka mandé-y si i mayé

When you HAB ask-her if she want marry

“When you ask her if she wants to get married”

P&T
Mod Mod+V P+V Yo viv adoumanman, san yo fòsé pou hak

They want live(V) quietly, without they make.efforts for nothing

“They want to live quietly, without making any sort of efforts”

P&T
Mod Mod+V Sa sé granmoun-la toujou vlé kwè [sa]

This COPpres adult-DEF always want believe [this]

“It’s the adults that always want to believe [this]”

P&T

 


Restructuring

Description Example From
Restr+V Tiprens-la té -y rimakyé

Little.prince-DEF ANT make-he notice

“The Little prince had him notice”

TP
Restr+V I té ka -w vwè on sèpan boa ka valé on bèt féròs

It ANT HAB make-you see a snake boa PROGR swallow a beast wild

“It showed a boa swallowing a wild beast”

TP
Restr+V On sepan boa i té ka on éléfan désann

A snake boa that ANT PROGR make an elephant go.down

“A boa that was swallowing an elefant”

TP
Restr+V Yo ka planèt-la payé an pach

They HAB make planet-DEF blow.up

“They make the planet blow up”

TP
Restr+V É sa ka -y gonflé lèstonmak a-y plen santiman

And this PROGR make-he inflate stomach of-he lot.of feeling

“And this makes him swell with pride”

TP
Restr+V Tiprens-la té -y rimakyè

Little.prince-DEF ANT make-he notice

“The Litthe prince had him notice”

TP
Restr+V É dlodous-la i té ka fin piti a piti asi nou la té ka -mwen krenn plimové biten ankò

And drinkable.water-DEF that ANT PROGR finish little to little on we DEF2 ANT PROGR make-me fear worst thing even

“And the drinkable water we had, which was finishing, had me fear for the worst”

TP
Restr+V P Mod+V I té fo-mwen té tout sévèl an-mwen maché pou rivé konpwann […] pwoblèm-lasa

It ANT must-me ANT make all brain of-me function for arrive understand problem-DEM

“And I had to abuse of my brain functions to get to understand that problem [alone]”

TP
Restr+V

 

N+V Sé granmoun-la té -mwen pèd lanvi kontinyé

PLUR adult-DEF ANT make-me lose desire go.on

“The adults had me lose the desire to go on [doing so]”

TP
Restr+V P+V On pwoblèm asi kilès i té lèspri a-y maché onlo san di ayen

A problem on which he ANT make spirit of-he work a.lot without say nothing

“A problem about which he thought a lot without saying a word”

TP
Restr+V Men sa pa ka opozé-w dansé

But this NEG HAB prevent-you dance

“But this doesn’t prevent you from dancing!

P&T
Restr+V An ni détwa rézon séryé ka -mwen kwè planèt-la otila Triprens-la té sòti la sé astéwoyid B 612-la

I have some reason serious PROGR do-me believe planet-DEF from.where Little.prince-DEF ANT come DEF2 COPpres asteroid B 612-DEF

“I have some serious reasons that are making me believe that the planet from where the Little Prince came is the asteroid 612”

TP

 


Imperative

Description Example From
Imper Manzè Lizèt, vini-w tibwen

Miss Lisette, come-you a.little

“Miss Lisette, please come on!”

P&T
Imper Baré-y, baré vòlé-la !

Stop-him, stop thief-DEF!

“Stop him, stop that thief!”

P&T
Imper

 

SP Rakonté-mwen kijan sa pasé

Tell-me what this happen

“Tell me what happened”

P&T
Imper

 

V+V Pa mandé-yo manjé dòt biten ki pen

NEG ask-them eat other thing than bread

“Don’t ask them to eat other things than bread”

P&T
Imper

 

V+V Ay bo-yo pòyò oben fouyapen

Go give-them banana or breadfruit

“Try to give them some bananas or breadfruits [=if you dare]”

P&T
Imper

 

V+V An di-y : “Tonton, arèsté bwe wonm si ou sé on nomn !”

I say-him : “Uncle, stop drink rhum if you COP a man !

“I told him : “Uncle, stop drinking rhum if you’re a real man!””

P&T
Imper

 

P+V É mwen, démèwdé-mwen, pou ba sé timoun-la manjé

And me, put.my.fingers.out-me, for give PLUR child-DEF food

“And me, put my fingers out! To feed the kids”

P&T

 


Unexpected occurrences

Description Example From
UNEXP

(gerund)

I té mété-y ka tousé déotwa fwa

Hei ANT put-hei PROGR cough some time

“He (willingly) coughed a bunch of times [=he put himself coughing a bunch of times]”

TP
UNEXP

(fo+tensed V)

Kifè fo-mwen chwazi ondòt travay

So ANT must-me ANT choose another job

“So that I had to choose another job”

TP
UNEXP

(konmansé + gerund)

An té adan on gran kalkilasyon davwa pann an-mwen-la té konmansé ka sanm-mwen sa i té séryé bon séryé la

I was in one big calculation as breakdown of-me-DEF ANT start PROGR seem-me that it ANT serious good serious DEF2

“I was taking into consideration many possibilities, as the breakdown of my engine had started to look very very serious to me”

TP
UNEXP

(Kwè + gerund)

Yo ka kwè yo ka fè-moun pè avè pikan a-yo…”

They HAB think they HAB make-person fear with thorn of-they

“They think they can scare people with their thorns”

TP
UNEXP

(time adj)

P+V Sé baobab-la, avan yo vin gran, yo ka toupiti pou konmansé.

PLUR baobab-DEF, before they come big, they PROGR all.little to start

“The baobabs, before becoming big, (they) are very little”

TP